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Special symbols and entities

You can't use upper ASCII characters directly in HTML files. For example, in the word processor you use to write your HTML, you might use a sequence of commands to type . However, on another computer platform, this character might translate to a different character or no character at all.

To use these special characters, you need to type decimal references or entity references.

In addition to entity and decimal references, HTML has reserved characters that have special meanings in HTML files. For example, HTML uses angle brackets to enclose HTML tags. If you want to use an angle bracket in your text, you have to use a special character or entity reference; otherwise, the Navigator (or other web browser) might misinterpret the character and display incorrect text or even an error message.

You need to use decimal or entity references for the following characters:

Table A: Special Characters
Character Decimal Entity
" " "
& & &
< &#60; &lt;
> &#62; &gt;
non-breaking space
&nbsp;

List of character and decimal entities

The following table lists characters and their entity and decimal references. You must use either the entity or decimal reference if you want to use one of these characters in your HTML files.

Table A.2: Characters and their decimal references
Character Decimal Entity
¡ &#161;
¢ &#162
£ &#163
¤ &#164;
¥ &#165
¦ &#166
§ &#167;
¨ &#168;
© &#169;
ª &#170;
« &#171;
¬ &#172;
­ &#173;
® &#174;
¯ &#175;
° &#176;
± &#177;
² &#178;
³ &#179;
´ &#180;
µ &#181;
&#182;
· &#183;
¸ &#184;
¹ &#185;
º &#186;
» &#187;
¼ &#188;
½ &#189;
¾ &#190;
¿ &#191;
À &#192; &Agrave;
Á &#193; &Aacute;
 &#194; &circ;
à &#195; &Atilde;
Ä &#196; &Auml
Å &#197; &ring;
Æ &#198; &AElig;
Ç &#199; &Ccedil;
È &#200; &Egrave;
É &#201; &Eacute;
Ê &#202; &Ecirc;
Ë &#203; &Euml;
Ì &#204; &Igrave;
Í &#205; &Iacute;
Î &#206; &Icirc;
Ï &#207; &Iuml;
Ð &#208; &ETH;
Ñ &#209; &Ntilde;
Ò &#210; &Ograve;
Ó &#211; &Oacute;
Ô &#212; &Ocirc;
Õ &#213; &Otilde;
Ö &#214; &Ouml;
× &#215;
Ø &#216; &Oslash;
Ù &#217; &Ugrave;
Ú &#218; &Uacute;
Û &#219; &Ucirc;
Ü &#220; &Uuml;
Ý &#221; &Yacute;
Þ &#222; &THORN;
ß &#223; &szlig;
à &#224; &agrave;
á &#225; &aacute;
â &#226 &acirc;
ã &#227; &atilde;
ä &#228; &auml;
å &#229; &aring;
æ &#230; &aelig;
ç &#231; &ccedil;
è &#232; &egrave;
é &#233; &egrave;
ê &#234; &ecirc;
ë &#235; &euml;
ì &#236; &igrave;
í &#237; &iacute;
î &#238; &icirc;
ï &#239; &iuml;
ð &#240; &ieth;
ñ &#241; &ntilde;
ò &#242; &ograve;
ó &#243; &oacute;
ô &#244; &ocirc;
õ &#245; &otilde;
ö &#246; &ouml;
÷ &#247;
ø &#248; &oslash;
ù &#249; &ugrave;
ú &#250; &uacute;
û &#251; &ucirc;
ü &#252; &uuml;
ý &#253; &yacute;
þ &#254; &thorn;
ÿ &#255; &yuml;